Reihle, Carla

Bachelorarbeit, Fachbereich Environmental Engineering, 73 Seiten, engl.


In 2015 the United Nations agreed on seventeen goals (SDG) ensuring a sustainable development of all countries by the year 2030. In order to leave no one behind, economic, ecological and social factors are united in these goals and thus creating a sustainable future. To ensure the success of the agenda, developing countries, emerging economies and industrialized nations must all work together. Therefore, the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) commissions the Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) to support selected partner countries in their implementation of the Agenda 2030.

One of those partner countries is Namibia, where the GIZ has been working since the country gained its independence in 1990. In this context, one of the areas in which Namibia receives support from the GIZ, is the transport sector. The majority of the Namibian population live in rural areas where limited access to transport modes and infrastructure are the main reason for the inhabitants not being able to access health facilities, education or markets. Currently, to reach those key services, long waiting hours and high transport costs have to be applied. Therefore, rural inhabitants need efficient, affordable, safe and reliable transport modes.

It is widely documented that in many developing countries, bicycles are an ideal transport mode to address the described needs. In Namibia, however, the use of bicycles as an alternative and affordable transport mode is limited. Especially in rural areas, where only a few inhabitants can afford a car, this results in long walking distances or long waiting hours to reach the key services. The following study addresses that topic by developing a theoretical concept about an affordable and alternative transport mode. The work is part of the implementation process of the Master Plan for Sustainable Transport for Ohangwena, Omusati, Oshana and Oshikoto Regions. In the context of the Master Plan, several pilot projects are being determined. The development of one of these pilot projects was carried out in this study by creating a concept to improve mobility in the Omusati region using a solar-powered e-bike rental. The concept is elaborated with the use of a bike share planning guide, creating the framework. Additional information with regards to the local conditions complete the design of the e-bike rental. Therefore, the study is divided into seven chapters.

The first part of the study deals with the transport system of rural regions in developing countries. An overview shows the reason for the importance of transport in those regions. Furthermore, the current situation in terms of transport is described and it is listed how far the Namibian government addresses the issue. Additionally, the role of bicycles in terms of the development of rural areas, is explained. At the end this of this part, the benefits and limitations of using bicycles, with a particular focus on rural Namibia are presented.

Part two presents the study area selected for the development of the concept. Starting with Namibia as a country, the chapter goes into a more detailed presentation of the Omusati region. In particular, the transport situation in Omusati is discussed. Furthermore, high transport costs and long walking distances are indicated as the reason for the need of an alternative mobility solution.

The third part presents the topic of electric bike sharing in more detail. In that regard, the history of the development of bicycle rental systems is used as an introduction. Additionally, the chapter provides a detailed look at the components of the electric bike and the benefits of a bike-rental using electric bikes.

In the fourth part, the parameters required for the electric bike rental are determined methodically and additionally adapted to the region. The chapter identifies, among other things, the number of bicycles required, the exact location of the stations and the way the system is operated. A calculation regarding the number of solar modules, in needed to charge the batteries, can be found.

All results are summarized and discussed in the fifth part in terms of the final concept. It can be noted that, despite difficulties related to the actuality and accuracy of the data, this study develops a concept forming the basis for further planning of a bicycle related pilot project in the Omusati region and thus presenting an alternative mobility option.